Sabtu, 21 November 2009

RULE OF LAW ACCORDING TO THE EUROPEAN (CIVIL LAW) CONCEPTION


The modern European (Rechtstaat), or state based on Rule of Law, rests on Roman legal procedures but also on the tradisional of an unique system of checks and balances created in the late medieval period. This system has been influenced by a growth of the nation of the immunity of certain groups and persons from the power of the ruler (feudal king), along with the conception of the right of resistance to unjust authority and that of contract as a mutual engagement freely undertaken by free persons, derived form the feudal relation of vassalage.

FRENCH CONCEPTION
The development of the rule of law conception in France can be characterized by two peculiar features of the Frecch concept :
  1. No French term existed as an equivalent of the term used to represent the conception of rule of law until the fifth republik (1958)
  2. France lacked real constitutionalism, as the Frech system did not very much revere constitutions and remedies connected to it. Between 1789 and 1959, France had 16 different constitutions (of which 5 in the revolutionary years between 1971 and 1804).
Instead of the supremacy of the constitution, the French adhered to the supremacy of parlianment (legislative sovereignty) with the legislative power as the major power of the state. It was only after 1977 that a new conception of Etat de droit emerged, with the introduction of a Conseil constitutionnel, a French constitutional court, as one of the main innovations of the constitution of the fifth republic (1958).

GERMAN CONCEPTION
Also in Germany, rule of law at first meant Gesetzesstaat, in as accordance with the thin conception of formal legality. The term Rechtstaats was first used by Johan Wilhelm Placidus in his Literatur der Staatslehre. Ein Versuch. But before the second world war, the German legal system had itself more the character of a Gesetzesstaats of rule of law with its main focus on the principle of legality in the sense of administrative action to be submitted to law (legal rules).

Since 1949, when under the influence of the allied forces the new Grundgesetz or Basic Law (constitution) came into force, Germany has a rulr of law in the sense of formal legality and democracy, and a constitutional court that controls whether statutory law and judicial decisions are in accordance with the constitutions and the fundamental rights mentioned in it.

DUTCH CONCEPTION
As in France and Germany, the Ducth rule of law has fore a very long time stressed the importance of parliamentary sovereignty more than constitutional sovereignty with its a accent of human rights. Until now there is no constitutional court in the Netherlands and the juges is forbidden to evaluate whether a statute is in accordance with the constitution.

Selasa, 03 November 2009

RULE OF LAW ACCORDING TO THE AMERICAN CONCEPTION GENERAL REMARKS


Unlike typical European constitution, the basic charter of the United States says nothing about a commitment to the rule of law. The closest constitutional analogue is the phrase prohibiting the deprivation of 'life, liberty, or property without due process of law'. This concept of due process has become, in American law, the most vigilant guarantor of the set of procedural rights and remedies that are available to individual citizens, which we usually mean when we refer to the rule of law.

The (sometimes forced) imposition of the American model of the rule of law all over the world should not make us blind for reality. In the United States itself there is a debate going on about the nature, merits and limitations of this spicimen of the rule of law, which discussion is often glossed over in the universal propaganda.

Jumat, 14 Agustus 2009

RULE OF LAW ACCORDING TO THE ENGLISH (ANGLO SAXON) CONCEPTION


An element in the history of the Rule of Law following the English conception is the fact, different from other states and legal systems, at the end of the Middle Ages, there already existed in England a centuries-old legal tradition, with its own system of education and body of knowledge, which made that courts could indepently withstand attempts at regal interference.

An increasingly specialized and autonomous legal profession administered law and took care of its regular implementation with courts established at the center of this institutional complex and judges who served as "the guardians of and spokesman for the law".

Selasa, 07 Juli 2009

Licence of Copyrights


Copyrights is exclusive rights to receiver or creator the right to announce or multiply its creation or allow for that without lessening demarcations according to law and regulation.

Creator is a or some people by together which of its inspiration bear a creation pursuant to ability of mind, imagine, handiness, poured membership or skill in the form of typical and have the character of person.

Right owner create is creator as owner of copyrights, or the abandonee side of creator, or other party accepting furthermore belonging of sides.

License is permit given by right owner create or related right owner to other party to announce and/or multiply its creation or related rights product of him with certain conditions.

Linsensi can in form of agreement agreed on by creator or receiver of rights with perpetrator (actor, singer, musician, dancer, and others), voice record produser, and broadcasting institute.

Sabtu, 20 Juni 2009

Islamic Law



Concept refert to a state which al-Qur'an, Sunnah and human reason work together and together constitute the Islamic. The nomocracy Islam can be characterized of principles. These principles are are mentioned in the Koran. The character of the Islamic state and called it a "theocracy". In Islam equality is prominent. That's "nomocracy" is a far better name, wherein the power is held by the law which comes from Allah. Nomocracy Islam as rule of Islamic Law.

In the Indonesian history, Muslims have often felt subordinated by the old artistocracies who were only superficially Muslim. Devout Muslims therefore regarded the Rule of Law and especially its emphasis on social equality as a corrective continuiting influence of hierarchy and privilege of former and current elites.

Presently, and also abroad, moderate Islamic Indonesian intellectuals appear to play a wholesome and guinding role in politic and particularly in the discussion on the future of Indonesian rule of law.

Minggu, 07 Juni 2009

CUSTOMARY LAW (Adat Law)





Like common law, adat law is not based on codes or law books but on presedents and general rules of what so called adat communities feel as just and fair (equity). Another similiarity with common law is that it applies to everybody, from the highest to the lowest strata in society.

Is adat law in acoordande with the rule of law ? Not with fromal legality, we presume, at least not in the general sense of written law that is general, public, prospective and sufficiently clear. But if we regard it from a more substantive perspective, as a corpus of rules of which the adat society is suffiently conscious and which are to be considered as representative of the common view on what law should be, the answer could be more variegated and even positive.

In adat law we can make a rough distinction between law to be spoken by adat gremia of the community itself and the decisions of hudges from outside who are appointed by the central government. The first group, which stems from the community itself, has a good overview of the living law in that community. The second group can only rely on rules and opinions on fairnes and legal consciousness provided by advisors from the community itself and/or rules distilled and written down for the respective adat communities by e.g. Van Vollenhoven and his disciples. Are the latter still valid ? We don't think so because adat law is a living and always developing, instrument and Van Vollenhoven has been dead for a very long time.

As to elements of formal legality as indentified abovre, one could argue that the local influence of the deciding adat gremia may sometimes be too strong to speak of "political liberty", in the sense of sufficient limitations on the influence of the "sovereign".

Kamis, 21 Mei 2009

RULE OF LAW


What is 'Rule of Law'? It is not possible to give an unequivocal answer to this question. Concepts of Rule of Law and Rechtsstaatb have varied from one place to the other and over time and no one has ever come up with a definition generally agreed upon. As a result there often is a profound degree of misunderstanding between legal scholars and others when discussing 'Rule of Law'.

Cenceptions of Rule of Law can be devided into two general types, thin and thick. A thin conception stresses the formal or instrumental aspects of Rule of Law - those features that any legal system allgedly must posses to function effectively as a system of laws, regardless of whether the legal system is part of a democratic or non-democratic society, capitalis, liberal or theocratic.

A thick or substantive conception of Rule of Law, on the other hand, is characterized by Peerenboom as a state with the basic elements of a thin Rule of Law state plus elements of political morality 'such as particular economic arrangements (free-market capitalism, central planning,'Asia developmental state' or other varieties of capitalism), forms of government (democratic, socialist, soft authoritarian) or conceptions of human rights (liberatian, classical liberal, social welfare liberal, communitarian, 'Asia values' etc).

Sabtu, 02 Mei 2009

TWO ASPECTS OF THE TERM "LAW"


At the outset of our endeavour, we want to draw attention to two different meanings of the term 'law' itself. The different views on rule of law in the countries under examination can be partly traced back to terminology. Most European languages have two different words for the English and the American word 'law'. The first term has the meaning of the word 'Gezetz' in German, 'Loi' in French, 'Wet' in Dutch, 'Ley' in Spanish (compare 'Undang-undang' in Indonesia), In all those languages there also exists another term for 'law', which expresses a higher nation of law and is reflected in the word 'Recht' in German and Dutch, 'Droit' in French, 'Derecho' in Spanish ('Hukum' in Indonesia).

This Law in a higher sense is related to the rights of 'Human Rights' in the sense of higher rights or principal rights.

Hence we can derive two different manifestation/meaning for the Rule of Law :
  • Rule of law in the narrow, which means a state based on the principle that the government is bound by rules that have been written and announced beforehand (compare hereafter the thin conception of rule of law).
  • Rule of law in broad sense, which means an ideal for good government with in it the dimension of good Law or Right. In this concept great empasis is being laid on the constitution and on judicial review (compare hereafter the thick conception of rule of law).

Rabu, 29 April 2009

PRINSIP-PRINSIP NEGARA HUKUM (rule of law)


Negara hukum adalah negara yang menempatkan hukum pada tempat yang tertinggi, yang meliputi perlindungan terhadap hak asasi manusia, pemisahan kekuasaan, setiap tindakan pemerintah didasarkan pada peraturan perundang-undangan, dan adanya peradilan yang berdiri sendiri.

Prinsip-prinsip negara hukum meliputi hal-hal sebagai berikut :
  • pengakuan dan perlindungan terhadap hak asasi manusia yang mengandung persamaan dalam bidang politik, hukum, sosial, ekonomi dan kebudayaan;
  • peradilan yang bebas dan tidak memihak serta tidak dipengaruhi oleh sesuatu kekuasaan atau kekuatan apa pun, dan
  • legalitas dalam arti hukum.
Law state is state placing law at highest place, which cover protection to human rights, dissociation of power, every government action relied on law and regulation, and existence of selfsupporting jurisdiction.

Principles law state cover the followings:
  • protection and confession to pregnant human right of equation in the field of politics, law, social, economic an culture;
  • unbiased and free jurisdiction and also do not bother by something strenght or power anything, and
  • legality in law meaning.

Kamis, 26 Maret 2009

ARTI NEGARA DILIHAT DARI EMPAT ASPEK (meaning state seen from four aspect)


Negara sebagai organisasi kekuasaan : bahwa negara ialah alat masyarakat yang mempunyai kekuasaan mutlak untuk mengatur hubungan antar manusia dalam masyarakat tersebut. Pada hakekatnya merupakan suatu organisasi kekuasaan yang menyatukan kelompok manusia yang kemudian disebut bangsa. Unsur terpenting (primer) dari negara adalah oeganisasi kekuasaan, sedangkan bangsa merupakan unsur sekunder.

Negara sebagai organisasi politik : bahwa negara merupakan integrasi kekuasaan politik. Negara berfungsi sebagai alat yang mengatur hubungan-hubungan manusia dan menertibkan gejala-gejala dalam masyarakat untuk mencapai tujuan masyarakat tersebut.

Negara sebagai organisasi kesusilaan : bahwa individu memiliki kemerdekaan dalam kehidupan bermasyarakat. Negara sebagai organisasi kesusilaan yang timbul karena terjadinya perpaduan individual. Negara merupakan penjelmaan dari keseluruhan individu. Oleh karena itu negara berkewajiban menjaga kemerdekaan dan menertibkan berbagai kepentingan individu sehingga kemerdekaan individu yang satu tidak bertentangan dengan individu lainnya.

Negara sebagai integrasi antara pemerintah dan rakyat : bahwa negara merupakan integrasi antara pemerintah dan rakyatnya yang disamakan artinya dengan paham integralistik. Menurut paham ini, individu dianggap sebagai bagian integral negara yang memiliki kedudukan dan fungsi untuk menjalankan negara. Indonesia tidak menganut paham intgralistik secara murni. Akan tetapi, paham ini ditafsirkan sebagai paham negara kesatuan yang didasarkan pada kekeluargaan dan gotong-royong.

State as power organization : that state is society appliance having absolute authority to arrange relation between human being in society. Intrinsically represent a power organization uniting human being group which then referred as nation. All Important Element (primer) of state is power organization, while nation represent element of secundary.

State as political organization : that state represent integration power of politics. Functioning state as a means of arranging human being relations and arrange in order symptoms in society to reach the target of society.

State as ethics organization : that individual have independence in societal life. State as organization ethics of arising out because the happening of individual solidarity. State represent incarnation from overall of individual. Therefore state is obliged to take care of independence and arrange in order various importance of individual so that independence of individual which is one do not oppose against other individual.

State as integration between people and government : that state represent integration between government and its people which equalized by its meaning with understanding of integralistic. According to this understanding, individual considered to be state integral part owning to domicile and function to run state. Indonesia do not embrace understand integralistic purely. However, this understanding is interpreted as relied on unity state understanding is familiarity and cooperate.

Sabtu, 14 Maret 2009

PERBUATAN MELAWAN HUKUM (deed of tort)


Pengaturan tentang melawan hukum dalam Kitab Undang-undang Hukum Perdata hanya dalam beberapa pasal saja, sebagaimana juga terjadi di negara-negara yang menganut sistem Eropa Kontinental lainnya, tetapi kenyataan menunjukkan bahwa gugatan perdata ada yang di pengadilan didominasi oleh gugatan melawan hukum, disamping gugatan ingkar janji kontrak (wanprestasi).

Perbuatan melawan hukum di sini dimaksudkan adalah sebagai melawan hukum keperdataan. Sebab, untuk perbuatan melawan hukum pidana (delik) atau kejahatan/pelanggaran pidana mempunyai arti dan pengaturan hukum yang berbeda.

Di negara-negara Eropa Kontinental, misalnya Belanda dikenal Istilah "Onrechtmatige Daad," atau di negara-negara Anglo Saxon dikenal dengan istilah "tort". Pengertian perbuatan melawan hukum adalah perbuatan yang dilakukan oleh seseorang atau badan hukum yang oleh karena salahnya telah menimbulkan kerugian bagi orang lain.

Dalam ilmu hukum dikenal 3 (tiga) kategori dari perbuatan melawan hukum, yaitu sebagai berikut :
  • Perbuatan melawan hukum karena kesengajaan (pasal 1365);
  • Perbuatan melawan hukum tanpa kesalahan/tanpa unsur kesengajaan maupun kelalaian (pasal 1366);
  • Perbuatan melawan hukum karena kelalaian (1367).
Arrangement about deed of tort in Civil Code only in a few just section, as also happened in nations embracing other Europe Continental system, but fact indicate that civil using there is which in justice predominated by suing deed of tort, beside suing break a promise contract.

Deed of toor is here neant by as contempting of court civil. Because, foor deed of tort crime (delict) or collision of crime have meaning and arrangement of different law.

In Continental European countries, for example Dutch recognized by term "Onrechtmatige daad" or in Anglo Saxon countries recognized with term "tort". Congeniality of deed of tort is deed conducted by legal body or someone which is wrong because ofness of him have generated loss to others.

In law science reconigzed by 3 (three) categorize from deed of tort, that is as follows :
  • Deed of tort because intention (section 1365 Civil Code of Indonesia);
  • Deed of tort without mistake/intentional element and also negligence (section 1366 Civil Code of Indonesia);
  • Deed of tort because negligence (section 1367 Civil Code of Indonesia).

Selasa, 10 Maret 2009

TINDAK PIDANA LINGKUNGAN HIDUP (injustice environment)


Manusia sejak dilahirkan di dunia ini, telah berada pada suatu lingkungan hidup tertentu. Kehidupan manusia haruslah seimbang atau serasi dengan lingkungan hidupnya. Apabila terjadi kerusakan, maka kehidupan manusia akan terancam dari akibat pengrusakan alam. Tindak pidana lingkungan hidup merupakan kejahatan yang meliputi perbuatan sebagai berikut :
  • Perbuatan pencemaran lingkungan hidup;
  • Perbuatan perusakan lingkungan hidup, dan
  • Perbuatan lain yang melanggar ketentuan perundang-undangan yang berlaku.
Pencemaran lingkungan hidup adalah masuknya atau dimasukannya mahluk hidup, zat, energi, dan/atau komponen lain ke dalam lingkungan hidup oleh kegiatan manusia, sehingga kualitasnya turun sampai ke tingkat tertentu yang menyebabkan lingkungan hidup tidak dapat berfungsi sesuai dengan peruntukannya.

Perusakan lingkungan hidup adalah tindakan yang menimbulkan perubahan langsung atau tidak langsung terhadap sifat fisik dan/atau hayatinya yang mengakibatkan lingkungan hidup tidak berfungsi lagi dalam menunjang pembangunan berkelanjutan.

Perbuatan loain yang melanggar ketentuan peraturan perundang-undangan yang berlaku terkait dengan pengelolaan lingkungan hidup. Peraturan perundang-undangan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam hal ini cukup banyak tersebar di berbagai tingkat peraturan.

Human being since borne in this world, have resided in at one particular certain environment. Human life shall be compatible or well-balanced with its environment. In then event of damage, hence human life will is threatened from effect of ruining of nature. Environment doing an injustice represent badness covering the following deed :
  • Deed of contamination of environment;
  • Deed of mutilation of environment, and
  • Other deed which impinge rule of legislation going into effect.
Contaminating of environment is entry of or its input of life being, matter, energy, and/or other component into environment by activity of human being, so that its quality get down to certain storey which cause environment of can not function as according to allotment of it.

Mutilation of environment is to action generating indirect or direct change to nature of physical and/or involve him resulting environment do not function again in supporting development of have continuation.

Other deed which impinge rule of law and regulation going into effect related to management of environment. Law and regulation as referred to in this matter quite a lot spread over in various regulation storey.

Senin, 09 Maret 2009

PEMBUKTIAN KEJAHATAN MAYANTARA (verification of cyber crime)


Kemajuan teknologi komputer dan internet telah merubah masyarakat dari bersifat lokal menuju masyarakat yang bersifat global. Kehadiran internet telah merubah cara pandang dalam kehidupan manusia. Kehidupan yang nyata bertambah menjadi realitas bersifat maya (virtual). Perubahan cara pandang atau pola pikir yang semula paper based menjadi electronik based. Ini menjadi lebih jelas, ketika kita melakukan transaksi secara on-line.

Dalam praktek hukum perubahan ini menimbulkan perdebatan di kalangan ahli huku. Dalam hukum pidana terjadi perdebatan, apakah masih relevan model pembuktian konvensional ketika dihadapkan pada kejahatan virtual yang biasa dikenal dengan cyber crime. Membuktikan mengandung maksud dan usaha untuk menyatakan kebenaran atas suatu peristiwa.

Cyber crime semuanya serba maya. Dalam kejahatan ini biasanya pelaku melakukan aksinya seorang diri. Kejahatan yang dilakukan berbasis elektronik. Dalam Kitab Undang-undang Hukum Pidana di Indonesia tidak ada petunjuk tentang penggunaan alat bukti ini, mengingat dilakukan secara virtual yang akan sulit sekali untuk dilihat kapan (tempos delcti), bagaimana caranya (modusoperandi), dan dimana pelaku melakukan perbuatannya (locus delicti).

Progress of technology of computer and internet have change society from having the character of local go to society having the character of is global. Attendance of internet have change the way of approach in human life. Real life increase to become reality have the character of illusoryly (virtual). Change of way of patterned thinking or approach which initialy based paper become electronic of based. This become clearerly, when us conduct transaction on-linely.

In aspect law, this change make an issue among jurist. In criminal law happened debate, whether still is relevant of model verification of convential when given on to badness of virtual which is ordinary to be recognized with cyber crime. Proving to contain effort and intention to express the truth of to the an event.

Cyber crime altogether illusory completely. In this badness usually perpetrator conduct its action alone. Conductedb badness it base on electronic. In Criminal Code in Indonesia there no guide about usage of this evidence appliance, considering to be conducted by virtual to be difficult once for look when (tempos delicti), how to (modusoperandi), and where perpetrator conduct its badness (locus delicti)

Minggu, 08 Maret 2009

ASAS-ASAS KEWARGANEGARAAN (civic principles)


Kewarganegaraan adalah segala hal yang berhubungan dengan warga negara. Adapun asas-asas kewarganegaraan universal meliputi ius sanguinis, ius soli, dan campuran. Pengertian asas-asas tersebut adalah sebagai berikut :
  • Ius sanguinis (law of the blood) adalah asas yang menentukan kewarganegaraan seseorang berdasarkan keturunan, bukan berdasarkan negara tempat kelahiran.
  • Ius soli (law of the soil) adalah asas yang menentukan kewarganegaraan seseorang berdasarkan negara tempat kelahiran.
  • Kewarganegaraan tunggal adalah asas yang menentukan satu kewarganegaraan bagi setiap orang.
  • Kewarganegaraan ganda terbatas adalah asas yang menentukan kewarganegaraan ganda bagi anak-anak sesuai dengan ketentuan yang diatur di dalam undang-undang.

Civic is every thing related to citizen. As for universal civic principles cover ius sanguinis, ius soli, and mixture. Congeniality of the grounds shall be as follows :

  • Ius sanguinis (law of the blood) is principle determining, someone civic pursuant to clan, non pursuant to birth place state.
  • Ius soli (law of the soil) is principle determining someone civic pursuant to birth place state.
  • Single civic is principle determining one civic for every people.
  • Limited double civic is princile determining double civic to children pursuant to which is arranged in code.

Sabtu, 07 Maret 2009

PRIBADI (person)


Yang dinamakan pribadi di dalam hukum adalah siapa saja yang dapat menjadi pendukung hak-hak dan kewajiban- kewajiban hukum, yaitu disebut juga sebagai subyek hukum. Bisa menjadi pendukung hak dan kewajiban artinya adalah mempunyai hak dan/atau kewajiban yang diakui oleh hukum. Sekalipun seseorang itu secara teoritis pada suatu saat tidak mempunyai hak maupun kewajiban (hukum) sama sekali, ia tetap saja sebagai person, ia tetap mempunyai kewenangan hukum.

Sebaliknya suatu badan hukum yang telah dibubarkan, selama proses likuidasi, masih dianggap sebagai badan hukum, karena kekayaannya, hak-hak dan kewajiban-kewajibannya tidak dengan sendirinya beralih kepada para manusia sebagai pemiliknya. Di dalam hukum, untuk hak-hak tersebut digunakan istilah teknis hukum, yaitu hak subyektif, namun dalam prakteknya orang biasa menyebutnya dengan "hak" saja.

Sekalipun dikatakan bahwa badan hukum bisa mempunyai hak dan kewajiban, tetapi sesuai dengan sifat dan keadaannya, tidak berarti bahwa badan hukum bisa mempunyai semua hak-hak dan kewajiban-kewajiban yang dipunyai oleh manusia (person alamiah).

Orang mulai mempunyai kepribadian sebagai manusia sejak ia dilahirkan, dengan begitu ia menjadi subyek hukum. Tetapi anak yang ada dalam kandungan seorang perempuan, dianggap sebagai telah dilahirkan, bilamana juga untuk kepentingan si anak menghendakinya (misalnya masalah waris). Mati sewaktu dilahirkan, dianggap ia tidak perdah ada.

Which named by person in law is whosoever able to become supporting of rights and obligations of law, that is referred as also as law subject. Can become supporting of its meaning rights and obligations is to have obligation and/or rights confessed by law. Even if that someone theoretically at one time have no right and also obligation (law) at all, its just remain to be as person, its remain to have outhoritative of law.

On the contrary a legal body which have been disbanded, during liquidation process, still considered to be legal body, because its properties, its rights and obligations do not by itself transfer to all human being as its owner. In law, for the nrights used by technical term of law, that is rights of subjective, but in practice of common people mention with "rights" just.

Even if said that by legal body can have rights and obligations, but as naccording to nature of and its situation, did not mean that legal body can have all obligations and rights had by human being (natural person).

People start to have personality as human being since its borne, that wat he become law subject, but existing child in content a women, considered to be have been borne, when also for the sake of the child want its (for example matter of heir). Dead is time borne, to be assumed by its have never there.

Jumat, 06 Maret 2009

ARTI PENTING PUTUSAN HAKIM (important meaning of judge decision)


Di dalam undang-undang termuat hukum, berwujud aturan-aturan. Ini merupakan hukum yang tertulis. Tetapi di dalam tindakan-tindakan seseorang pun juga tersimpul hukum. dari kenyataan-kenyataan itupun juga dapat diketemukan aturan-aturan. Ini merupakan hukum yang tidak tertulis, sekedar itu tidak juga terdapat dalam sebuah undang-undang.

Jika seseorang melakukan tindakan yang tidak sebagaimana hukumnya, jikalau ada persoalan bagaimanakah hukumnya, maka harus ditemukan bagaimanakah atau apakah hukumnya itu. Kita sendiri juga dapat mengatakan bagaimanakah hukumnya itu dalam suatu hal, akan tetapi pendapat kita itu adalah pendapat perseorangan. Pendapat kita itu tidak mempunyai kekuatan mengikat secara obyektif.

Orang-orang yang pendapatnya justru mempunyai kekuatan mengikat yaitu petugas hukum, yang salah satunya ialah hakim, atau pengadilan. Hakim di dalam keputusannya, menetapkan bagaimana hukumnya yang berlaku di dalam sesuatu hal. Petugas hukum lainnya ialah pembentuk undang-undang. Tetapi tugas hakim berlainan daripada tugas pembentuk undang-undang, walaupun pada asasnya sama, yaitu menetapkan hukum. Hakim memutuskan hukumnya yang berlaku secara konkrit, sedangkan pembentuk undang-undang secara abstrak.

Di negara-negara Anglo-Saxon, termasuk Amerika Serikat. Di sana para hakim terikat kepada keputusan yang sudah ada lebih dahulu dari hakim-hakim yang lebih tinggi dan hakim-hakim yang sejajar. Dengan demikian di negara itu terjadi "judge made law", atau "case law". Sedangkan di Indonesia tidak demikian karena putusan hakim terdahulu dalam perkara kemudian yang serupa boleh diikuti oleh hakim yang akan mengambil keputusan. Kata "boleh" berarti tidak harus.

In Code included law, extant of orders. This represent written law. But in someone action is also concluded by law of facts of that even also can be met by orders. This represent unwritten law, simply that do not also there are in a Code.

If someone conduct action which do not as its law, if there is problem how its law, hence have to be found how or what is its law. Our own also can tell how its law in a matter, however our opinion that is opinion of civil. Our opinion that don't have strength fasten objectively.

Its Opinion people who exactly have strength fasten that is officer of law, what one of them is judge, or justice. Judge in its decision, specifying how its law which go into effect in something matter. Officer of other law is lawmaker. But different judge duty than duty lawmaker, although at its is same principle, that is specifying law. Judge decide its law which go into effect by concrete, while lawmaker of abstractionly.

In Anglo-Saxin nations, including United States. Over there all judge tied to decision which have there in advace from higher level judges and parallel judges. Thereby in that state happened "judge made law", or "case law". While in Indonesia do not that way because former judge decision in similar case later may follow by judge to take decision. Word "may" mean do not have to.

Kamis, 05 Maret 2009

ASAS DEMOKRASI (democracy principle)


Negara Hukum adalah negara yang penyelenggaraan pemerintahannya dijalankan berdasarkan dan bersaranakan hukum. Keberadaan negara hukum menjunjung asas-asas dasar yang menjadi pedoman dan salah satunya adalah asas demokrasi.

Asas demokrasi memberikan suatu cara atau metode pengambilan keputusan. Asas ini menuntut bahwa setiap orang harus mempunyai kesempatan yang sama untuk mempengaruhi tindakan pemerintah. Asas ini diwujudkan lewat sistem representasi (perwakilan rakyat) yang mempunyai peranan dalam pembentukan undang-undang dan kontrol terhadap pemerintah. Beberapa hal penting dalam asas demokrasi yaitu :
  1. Pemilihan umum
  2. Pemerintah bertanggungjawab kepada perwakilan rakyat
  3. Semua warga negara mempunyai kesempatan yang sama atau berpartisipasi dalam politik dan mengontrol pemerintahan
  4. Semua perbuatan pemerintah terbuka terhadap kritik dan kajian rasional dari semua pihak
  5. Kebebasan menyatakan pendapat
  6. Kebebasan pers dan keterbukaan informasi publik
  7. Rancangan undang-undang harus dipublikasikan untuk memungkinkan partisipasi rakyat
Masyarakat atau negara demokrasi adalah sebuah komunitas yang penggunaan kekuasaan di dalamnya secara institusional memperoleh legitimasi dari persetujuan rakyat sebagai suatu keseluruhan. Demokrasi perwakilan yang sejati hanya dapat terwujud dalam Negara Hukum.

Law States is state which is management of its governance is run pursuant to and have law medium. Existence of body politic hold high elementary grounds which become guidance and one of them is democracy principle.

Democracy principle give a way of or decision making method. This ground claim that each and everyone have to have same opportunity to influence to government action. This ground is realized to pass system of representation (delegation of people) having role in forming of code or law and control to government. Important several things in ground democratize that is :
  1. General election
  2. Governmental hold responsible to delegation of people
  3. All citizen have is same opportunity or participate in politics and control governance
  4. All deed of open government to rational study and criticism from all side
  5. Freedom express opinion
  6. Liberty of the press and openness of public information
  7. Draft of law have to be publicized to enable people participation
Society or democratic country is a community which usage of power in it institutionally get legitimed of approval of people as an entirerty. Democratize real delegation of can only from in Law States.

Rabu, 04 Maret 2009

PEMAHAMAN TENTANG KONTRAK (understanding about contract)


Ada tiga sistem hukum yang dikenal di dunia, namun yang paling menonjol adalah "common law legal system" yang berlaku di negara-negara Anglo Saxon. Sementara itu sistem "civil law legal system" dianut di negara-negara Eropa Kontinental. Dan yang terakhir adalah "socialist law legal system" yang sebenarnya lebih banyak dipengaruhi oleh civil law.

Dalam merancang kontrak atau pembuatan suatu konsep perjanjian harus mengacu kepada sistem hukum yang dianut. Di era globalisasi yang mempengaruhi sistem hukum yang diterapkan karena terjadi perjumpaan antara sistem hukum yang berlainan.

Dalam merancang kontrak, yang pembuatnya merupakan subjek-subjek hukum dari negara-negara yang menganut sistem hukum yang berbeda. Kontrak itu sebenarnya adalah suatu perjanjian, sehingga dalam membuat atau merancang suatu draft kontrak, mutlak diperlukan suatu pengetahuan dasar, yaitu mengenai teori hukum perjanjian. Pembuatan kontrak atau perjanjian tertulis, mempunyai kaitan dengan masalah pembuktian.

There is three recognized law system in world, but most uppermost is "common law legal system" going into effect in countries of Anglo Saxon. Meanwhile system "civil law legal system" embraced in countries of European Continental. And last is "socialist law legal system" what in fact more influenced by civil law.

In designing contract or making an agreement concept have to relate to embraced law system. In globalization era influencing applied law system because happened meet between different law system.

In designing contract, which is its maker represent subject law from nations embracing different law system. That contract in fact is an agreement, so that in making or design a draft of contract, absolute needed by a basic knowledges, that is hitting contractual law theory. Making of contract or agreement written, having bearing with matter of verification.

Selasa, 03 Maret 2009

TINDAK PIDANA (crime)


Secara dogmatis masalah pokok yang berhubungan dengan hukum pidana adalah membicarakan tiga hal, yaitu :
  1. perbuatan yang dilarang
  2. orang yang melakukan perbuatan yang dilarang itu
  3. sanksi yang diancam terhadap pelanggaran itu
Tindak pidana formil adalah tindak pidana yang perumusannya dititikberatkan kepada perbuatan yang dilarang, sebagaimana ditentukan oleh undang-undang, misalnya perbuatan mencuri. Tindak pidana materiil adalah tindak pidana yang perumusannya dititikberatkan kepada akibat yang dilarang, yaitu tindak pidana ini baru selesai apabila akibat yang dilarang itu terjadi, misalnya mengakibatkan hilangnya nyawa orang lain.

Tindak pidana comisionis adalah tindak pidana yang berupa pelanggaran terhadap aturan yang telah ditetapkan oleh undang-undang. Tindak pidana omisionis adalah tindak pidana yang berupa pelanggaran terhadap pemerintah yang telah ditetapkan oleh undang-undang.

Dolus adalah tindak pidana yang dilakukan dengan sengaja, sedangkan Culpa adalah tindak pidana yang dilakukan dengan kelalaian atau karena kealpaan. Tindak pidana aduan adalah perbuatan yang dilakukan itu baru dapat dilakukan penuntutan, apabila ada pengaduan. Jadi jika tidak ada pengaduan, maka perbuatan tersebut tidak akan dituntut.

Orang yang melakukan perbuatan yang dilarang adalah setiap pelaku yang dapat dipertanggungjawabkan secara pidana atas perbuatan yang dilarang dalam suatu undang-undang. Orang yang melakukan tindak pidana meliputi orang yang melakukan, orang yang menyuruh melakukan atau turut serta melakukan.

Sanksi yang diancamkan berupa hukuman pokok dan hukuman tambahan. Hukuman pokok meliputi hukuman mati, penjara, kurungan, dan denda. Hukuman tambahan meliputi pencabutan hak tertentu, penyitaan barang tertentu, pengumuman putusan hakim.

Dogmatically main problem related to criminal law to discuss there things, that is :
  1. prohibited deed
  2. one who conduct the prohibition deed
  3. menaced sanction to that collision
Formal of crime is an injustice which its formulation of focussed to prohibited dee, as determined by code, for example deed steal. Material of crime is an injustice which its formulation of focussed to effect of which is prohibitede, that is this doing an injustice newly finish if effect of the prohibiting happened, for example resulting the loss of others soul.

Comisionis of crime is an injustice which in the form of collision to order which have been specified by code. Omisionis of crime is an injustice which in the form of collision to government which have been specified by code.

Dolus ia an injustice designedly, while Culpa is conducted an injustice with because negligence. Crime which informed against is the conducting deed newly can be conducted by prosecution, if there is denunciating. Become otherwise there is denunciating, hence the deed will not be claimed.

One who conduct deed the prohibited is every perpetrator able to be justified law of deed which is prohibited in a code. One who conduct crime cover one who conduct, one who ordering to conduct or have a share to conduct.

Manaced sanction in the form of fundamental penalization and extra punishment. Fundamental penalization cover capital punishment, prison, coop, and penalty. Extra punishment cover repeal of certain rights, confiscation of certain goods, announcement of judge decision.


Senin, 02 Maret 2009

HUKUM POSITIF (positive law)


Tiap-tiap bangsa memiliki hukumnya sendiri, seperti terhadap bahasa dikenal tata bahasa, demikian juga terhadap hukum dikenal juga tata hukum. Tiap-tiap bangsa mempunyai tata hukumnya sendiri.

Perbuatan atau tindakan manakah yang menurut hukum, dan manakah yang melawan hukum, bagaimanakah kedudukan seseorang dalam masyarakat, apakah kewajiban-kewajiban dan wewenang-wewenangnya. Semua pertanyaan itu akan terjawab menurut tata hukum masing-masing negara.

Hukum yang sedang berlaku di dalam seatu negara dinamakan hukum positif. Hukum dijadikan objek dari ilmu pengetahuan, yaitu hukum yang sedang berlaku di dalam suatu negara. Ilmu yang dipelajari ini disebut ilmu pengetahuan hukum positif.

Every nation have is own law, like to language recognized by structure, and so do to law recognized also law structure. Every nation have its own law structure.

Deed or action is which according to law, and which contempt of court, how dimiciling someone in society, what is obligations and its authority. All that question will be answered according to law of each state.

Law which going into effect in a stste by named is positive law. Law made by object of science, that is law which going into effect in a state. This ccience studied referred as positive law

Minggu, 01 Maret 2009

ASAS KEPASTIAN HUKUM (rule of law principle)


Negara hukum bertujuan untuk menjamin bahwa kepastian hukum terwujud dalam masyarakat. Hukum bertujuan untuk mewujudkan kepastian dalam hubungan antar manusia, yaitu menjamin prediktabilitas, dan juga bertujuan untuk mencegah bahwa hak yang terkuat yang berlaku, beberapa asas yang terkandung dalam asas kepastian hukum adalah :

  1. Asas legalitas, konstitusionalitas, dan supremasi hukum.
  2. Asas undang-undang menetapkan berbagai perangkat aturan tentang cara pemerintah dan para pejabatnya melakukan tindakan pemerintahan.
  3. Asas non-retroaktif perundang-undangan : sebelum mengikat, undang-undang harus diumumkan secara layak.
  4. Asas non-liquet : hakim tidak boleh menolak perkara yang dihadapkan kepadanya dengan alasan undang-undang tidak jelas atau tidak ada.
  5. Asas peradilan bebas : objektif-imparsial dan adil-manusiawi.
  6. Hak asasi manusia harus dirumuskan dan dijamin perlindungannya dalam undang-undang dasar.
Negara adalah suatu penataan yuridisal, dimana kekuasaan yang terlegitimasi dijalankan untuk mewujudkan cita-cita plitik dan memenuhi atau memuaskan kebutuhan-kebutuhan kolektif. Demokrasi perwakilan yang sejati hanya dapat terwujud dalam negara hukum.

Law state aim to guarante that form rule of law in society. Law aim to realize certainty in relation between human being, that is guarantying predictability, as well as aim to prevent that strong rights which go into effect, some ground which implied in rule of law ground is :
  1. Legality principle, constitutionality, and rule of law.
  2. Principle of Code specify various peripheral of order about way of government and all its functionary conduct action governance.
  3. Principle of Non-Retroactive legislation : before fastening, code have to be announced competently.
  4. Principle of Non-Liquet : judge may not refuse confronted case to it with reason of ill definel defined code or there no.
  5. Free jurisdiction principle : objective-imparcial and is fair-human.
  6. Human rights have to be formulated and guaranteed by its protection in constitution.
State is a settlement of yuridisal, where power which is legitimation run to realize aspiration of politic and fulfill or gratify collective requirements, real delegation democracy of form can only in law state.

Sabtu, 28 Februari 2009

HUKUM INVESTASI (Investment law)



Hukum investasi merupakan norma-norma hukum mengenai kemungkinan-kemungkinan dilakukannya investasi, syarat-syarat maupun perlindungan hukum, dan yang terpenting mengarahkan agar investasi dapat mensejahterakan rakyat.

Objek hukum investasi meliputi objek materiil berupa bahan yang dijadikan sasaran dalam pengkajiannya, dan objek formal berupa sudut pandang tertentu terhadap objek materiilnya. Objek formal hukum investasi adalah mengatur :
  1. hubungan antara investor dengan negara penerima modal;
  2. bidang-bidang usaha yang terbuka untuk investasi;
  3. prosedur dan syarat-syarat dalam melakukan investasi dalam suatu negara.
Asas hukum internasional merupakan asas di dalam penyelesaian sengketa antara pemerintah dengan penanam modal, apabila pemerintah melakukan tindakan nasionalisasi/pencabutan hak milik secara menyeluruh, dan penyelesaiannya harus didasarkan pada asas-asas hukum internasional.

Di dalam Agreement on Trade Related Invesment Measures (TRIMs) telah ditentukan sebuah asas, yaitu asas nondiskriminasi. Asas ini maksudnya adalah bahwa dalam investasi itu sendiri bersifat state borderless (tidak mengenal batas negara). Artinya tidak ada perbedaan antara investasi asing dengan investasi lokal.

Investment law represent norms law to regarding possibilities conducting of investment, conditions and also protection of law, and all important instruct investment to can be secure and prosperous of people.

Object investment law cover material object in the form materials taken as target in ist study, and formal object in the form of certain viewpoint to object of its material. Formal object of investment law is to arrange :
  1. relation between investor with state receicer of capital;
  2. areas of effort open for the investment;
  3. conditions and prosedure in conducting investment in state.
International principle of justice of represent ground in solving of dispute between government with investor, if government conduct action nationalzation/dispossession by totaly, and its solution have to be relied on international principle of justices.

In Agreement on Trade Related Investment Measures (TRIMs) have been determined by a ground, thatn is ground of nondiscrimination. This groud is intention is that in itself investment have the character of state borderless (do not know state boundary). Its meaning there no difference between foreign investment with local investment.

Jumat, 27 Februari 2009

HAK CIPTA (copyright)


Hak cipta adalah hak eksklusif bagi pencipta atau penerima hak untuk mengumumkan atau memperbanyak ciptaannya atau memberi izin untuk dengan itu tidak mengurangi pembatasan- pembatasan menurut peraturan perundang-undangan yang berlaku.

Pencipta adalah Seorang atau beberapa orang secara bersama-sama yang atas inspirasinya melahirkan suatu ciptaan berdasarkan kemampuan pikiran, imajinasi, kecekatan, keterampilan atau keahlian yang dituangkan dalam bentuk yang khas dan bersifat pribadi.

Ciptaan adalah hasil setiap karya pencipta yang menunjukkan keasliannya dalam lapangan ilmu pengetahuan, seni, atau sastra.

Pemegang hak cipta adalah pencipta sebagai pemilik hak cipta, atau pihak yang menerima hak tersebut dari pencipta, atau pihak lain yang menerima lebih lanjut hak dari pihak tersebut di atas.

Hak cipta dapat dialihkan baik seluruhnya maupun sebagian karena pewarisan, hibah, wasiat, perjanjian tertulis atau sebab-sebab lain yang dibenarkan oleh peraturan perundang-undangan.

Copyright is exclusive rights to receiver or creator the right to announce or multiply its creation or allow to with that do not lessen dermarcations according to law and regulation going into effect.

Creator is A or same people by together which of its inspiration bear a creation pursuant to ability of mind, imagine, handiness, poured knowledge or skill in the form of typical and have the character of person.

Creation is result of each creator masterpiece shoeing its authenticity in science field, artistic, or art.

Right owner create is creator as owner of copyrights, or the abandonee party of creator, or other party accepting furthermore belonging of above mentioned party.

Copyrights can be tranferred by goodness entirely and also party because endowment, donation, escrow, agreement ot other causes which agreed by law and regulation.

Kamis, 26 Februari 2009

HAK DAN KEWAJIBAN (rights and obligation)


Konsep "kewajiban" dan konsep "hak" memberikan prioritas peringkat kepada hak. Dalam lingkup hukum, kita berbicara tentang "hak dan kewajiban", dan bukan "kewajiban dan hak", seperti halnya dalam lingkup moral, di mana penekanan yang lebih besar diberikan pada kewajiban. Kita berbicara tentang hak sebagai sesuatu yang berbeda dari hukum.

Namun hak adalah hukum. Hukum dalam arti kata subyektif yang berlawanan dengan "hukum" dalam pengertian obyektif, yakni suatu tatanan hukum atau sistem norma. Untuk membedakan hak dan hukum, kita perlu berbicara dalam bahasa Jerman tentang subjektives Recht dan objektives Recht ( hukum subyektif dan hukum obyektif).

Consept "obligation" and consept "rights" giving level priority to rights. In law scope, we converse about "right an obligation", and non "obligation and right", just as in moral scope, where emphasis of larger ones passed to obligation. We converse about rights as something that differ from law.

But rights is law. Law in word meaning of subyektif adversative with "law" in congeniality of objective, namely an arrange law or norm system. To differentiate law and rights, we need to converse in German about subjektives Recht and of objektives Recht (subjective law and objective law).

Rabu, 25 Februari 2009

HAK KEKAYAAN INTELEKTUAL (intellectual property rights)


Hak kekayaan intelectual (HKI), yakni hak yang timbul bagi hasil olah pikir otak yang menghasilkan suatu produk atau proses yang berguna untuk manusia. Pada intinya HKI adalah hak untuk menikmati secara ekonomis hasil dari suatu kreativitas intelektual. Objek yang diatur dalam HKI adalah karya-karya yang timbul atau lahir karena kemampuan intelektual manusia.

HKI dibagi dalam 2 (dua) bagian, yaitu :
1. Hak cipta;
2. Hak kekayaan industri, yaitu melitputi paten, desain industri, merek, desain tata letak sirkut terpadu, dan rahasia dagang.

Sistem HKI merupakan hak privat. Seseorang bebas mengajukan permohonan atau mendaftarkan karya intelektualnya ataupun tidak. Badan yang secara internasional mengurus masalah HKI adalah World Intellectual Property Organinization (WIPO), suatu badan khusus Perserikatan Bangsa-bangsa. Pada saat ini, HKI telah menjadi isu yang sangat penting dan mendapat perhatian baik dalam forum nasional maupun internasional. Dimasukannya TRIPs dalam paket Persetujuan WTO tahun 1994 menandakan dimulainya era baru perkembangan HKI di seluruh dunia.

Dengan Demikian pada saat ini permasalahan HKI tidak dapat dilepaskan dari dunia perdagangan dan investasi. Pentingnya HKI dalam pembangunan ekonomi dan perdagangan telah memacu dimulainya era baru pembangunan ekonomi yang berdasarkan ilmu pengetahuan.

Intellectual property rights (IPR), that is sharing holder arising out rights process to think brain yielding a process or product which good for human being. At its nucleus of IPR is the right to enjoy economically result of from an intellectual creativity. Object which is arranged in IPR is arising out masterpieces or born because intellectual ability of human being.

IPR devided into 2 shares, that is :
1. Copyrights;
2. Industrial property rights, that is covering patent, industrial design, trademark, layout design of integrated circuit, and trade secret.

Siystem of IPR represent rights of privat. Free someone apply or register intellectual masterpiece of him and or not. Body which internationally manage the problem of IPR is World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), a special body of United Nation Organization. At the moment, IPR have come to very important issue and get attention of goodness in national forum and international. Its input of TRIPs in package Approval of WTO year 1994 designating starting of new era growth of IPR in all the world.

Thereby at the moment problems of IPR cannot be discharged from commerce world and invesment. Important of IPR in development of commerce and economics have reced starting of new era development of economics which pursuant to science.

Selasa, 24 Februari 2009

HUKUM ADMINISTRASI PEMERINTAHAN (public administration and law)


Hukum Administrasi Negara telah berkembang sejalan dengan gerak pemerintah dalam menata masyarakat. Dalam menjalankan tugas dan fungsi pemerintah menggunakan sarana hukum sebagai instrumen pengaturan.

Sebagai perwujudannya, pemerintah mengeluarkan aturan-aturan yang mengandung larangan dan kebolehan (izin), serta membuat ketetapan-ketetapan. Oleh karena itu, sejak awal, bahkan sejak dahulu pemerintah telah melibatkan atau telah menggunakan sarana hukum dalam penataan dan pengelolaan masyarakat.

Administration state law have expanded in line with governmental montion in arranging society. In running governmental function and duty use medium law as arrangement instrument.

As its materialization, government pregnant orders prohibition order and ability, and also make decisions. Therefore, since early, even since governmental ahead have etangled or have medium law in settlement and management of society.

Senin, 23 Februari 2009

SUMBER-SUMBER HUKUM INTERNASIONAL (source of international law)


Tidak ada badan legislatif internasional untuk membuat ketentuan-ketentuan yang mengatur secara langsung kehidupan masyarakat internasional. Satu-satunya organisasi internasional yang melakukan fungsi legislatif adalah Majelis Umum PBB, tetapi resolusi-resolusi yang dikeluarkannya tidak mengikat, kecuali yang menyangkut kehidupan organisasi internasional itu sendiri.

Ada konferensi-konferensi internasional dapat didefinisikan yang diselenggarakan dalam kerangka PBB untuk membahas masalah-masalah tertentu, tetapi tidak selalu merumuskan law-making treaties.

Sumber-sumber materiil hukum internasional dapat didefinisikan sebagai bahan-bahan aktual yang digunakan oleh para ahli hukum internasional untuk menetapkan hukum yang berlaku bagi suatu peristiwa atau situasi tertentu. Bahan-bahan tersebut dapat dikategorikan dalam lima bentuk, yaitu:
1. Kebiasaan;
2. Traktat;
3. Keputusan pengadilan atau badan-badan arbitrase;
4. Karya-karya hukum;
5. Keputusan atau ketetapan organ-organ/lembaga internasional.

Sedangkan Pasal 38 (1) Statuta Mahkamah Internasional menetapkan bahwa sumber hukum internasional yang dipakai oleh Mahkamah, yaitu :
1. Perjanjian internasional;
2. Kebiasaan internasional;
3. Prinsip-prinsip umum hukum;
4. Keputusan pengadilan.

There no international legislative body to make rules arranging directly life of international society. Single international organization which conduct legislative fuction is General Assembly of United Nation Organization, but free released resolutions it, except which concerning life of international organization of itself.

There is international conferences can be defined which carried out in United Nation Organization framework to study certain problems, but do not always formulate law-making treaties.

Material sources of international law can be defined as materialss of aktual used by all international jurist to specify applicable law to a certain situation or event. The materialss can be categorized in five form, that is :
1. Custom;
2. Treaty;
3. Verdict or decisioan bodys of arbitrase;
4. Law masterpieces;
5. Decision of organs/international institute.

While Section 38 (1) Statute World Court (International Justice Court) contend that source of international law which weared by Lawcourt, that is :
1. International aggreement/conventions;
2. International custom;
3. General principles of law;
4. Verdict/judicial decisions.

Minggu, 22 Februari 2009

PEMAHAMAN HAK ASASI MANUSIA DI INDONESIA (understanding of human rights in Indonesia)


Pemahaman tentang HAM dalam Negara Hukum di Indonesia didasarkan pada :
1. HAM dipahami dalam terminology hubungan atau relationship. Hak harus dilihat dalam hubungannya dengan masyarakat secara keseluruhan, dan pada saat yang sama masyarakat atau suatu komunitas berhubungan dengan hak-hak seorang individu.
2. Dalam pengembangan HAM, berarti menerima adanya kewajiban atau tanggung-jawab manusia. HAM tidak dapat dibicarakan tanpa adanya implikasi langsung dari kewajiban masyarakat untuk menghormati HAM.
3. HAM harus dipahami sebagai satu kesatuan yang tidak dapat dipisah-pisahkan. Pemahaman ini menunjukkan bahwa pada akhirnya hanya ada satu hak, yaitu hak untuk menjadi manusia.

Understanding of about human rights in law state in Indonesia relied on :
1. Human rights comprehended in relation terminology or relationship. Rights have to be seen its relation with society as a whole, and at the time of same of society or a community relate to rights a individual.
2. In development of human rights, meaning to accept the existence of human being responsibilities or obligation. Human right cannot be discussed without existence of direct implication of obligation of society in honour of human rights.
3. Human rights have to comprehend as one unity which cannot be separated. This understanding indicate that in the end there's only one right, that is the right to be human being.

Sabtu, 21 Februari 2009

ASPEK TEKNOLOGI PERLINDUNGAN PATEN (technological aspect protection of patent)

Indonesia mengalami pertumbuhan ekonomi yang sebagian besar dipicu oleh penanam modal asing sebelum krisis ekonomi tahun 1997. Gejolak politik dan inkonsistensi hukum pada setiap periode pemerintahan turut mewarnai penanaman modal asing di Indonesia.

Indonesia mau tidak mau harus melangkah maju sebagai konsekuensinya menjadi anggota GATT/WTO dan dalam rangka menyambut globalisasi. Untuk melaksanakan pembangunan di segala bidang, utamanya dalam rangka industrialisasi, mutlak diperlukan teknologi. Pengembangan teknologi tersebut diperlukan pengaturan paten.

Pengaturan paten pada hakekatnya adalah perlindungan paten itu sendiri yang berfungsi untuk melindungi penemuan sekaligus sebagai perangsang pengembangan teknologi, selanjutnya mewujudkan kesejahteraan masyarakat sebagai pengguna manfaat teknologis dan ekonomis paten.

Di Jerman, perlindungan luas, meskipun sama-sama merujuk kepada Konvensi Strasbourg dan Konvensi Paten Eropa. Inggris memberikan perlindungan yang sempit bagi luasnya perlindungan terhadap penemuan. Penentuan luasnya perlindungan dilakukan dengan berdasarkan penafsiran hakim yang dituangkan melalui putusan pengadilan, sesuai prinsip state decisis (common law).

Luasnya perlindungan penemuan di Inggris masih lebih besar dibandingkan Amerika. Di Amerika, tidak diatur luasnya perlindungan. Bahkan di Jepan, luasnya perlindungan sama seimbang dengan Amerika. Di Indonesia, luasnya perlindungan tidak diatur dalam Undang-undang Republik Indonesia Nomo 14 Tahun 2001 tentang Paten.

Dalam menentukan batas perlindungan Paten di Indonesia, seharusnya tidak diberikan terlalu luas sehingga tidak mengakibatkan terlalu besarnya monopoli yang diperoleh dalam mengeksploitasi penemuan tersebut, yaitu demi kepentingan para pihak, baik individu, masyarakat dan negara dalam pertumbuhan ekonomi dan teknologi, serta jaminan kepastian hukum.

Indonesia experienced of growth of economics is mostly triggered by foreign investor before economic crisis of 1997 year. Political distortion and inconsistence law in each period of governance partake to influence foreign invesment in Indonesia.

Indonesia will do not want to have to do progress as its consequence become member of GATT/WTO and in order to greeting globalization. To execute development in all sector. The core important in order to industrialization, needed by absolute of technology. Development of the technology needed regulation of patent.

Arrangement of patent intrinsically is protection of functioning itself paten to protect invention at the same time as incentive of development of technology, hereinafter realize prosperity of society as consumer of economic and technological benefit of patent.

In Germany, wide of protection, though both of the same refer to Convention of Strasbourg and Convention Patent Europe. English give narrow protection to protection broadness to invention. Determination of protection broadness conducted with pursuant to interpretation of poured judge through justice decision, according to principle of state decisis (common law).

Broadness protection of invention in English still compared to bigger of America. In America, do not be arranged by protection broadness. Even in Japan, Well-balanced is same protection broadness with America. In Indonesia, protection broadness do not be arranged in Code Republik of Indonesia number of 14 year of 2001 about Patent.

In delimitating protection of Patent in Indonesia, shouldn't be given too wide of so that do not result too big monopolistic which obtained in exploiting the invention, that is for the benefit of the parties, good of individual, state and society in growth of technology and economics, and also rule of law guarantee.

Jumat, 20 Februari 2009

TENTANG TUNTUTAN SEKUMPULAN ORANG (about class action)

Hak-hak masyarakat yang diatur dan dilindungi oleh hukum harus dijamin pemenuhannya. Hukum harus mampu menyelesaikan masalah-masalah yang timbul melalui sistem hukum pula. Istilah class action merupakan gabungan dari dua kata class dan action. Pengertian class adalah sekumpulan orang yang mempunyai kesamaan sifat, ciri, dan kepentingan, sedangkan pengertian action dalam dunia hukum adalah tuntutan yang diajukan kepengadilan.

Hukum acara perdata di Indonesia tidak mengenal prosedur gugatan secara perwakilan sebagaimana dimaksud di dalam Undang-undang Republik Indonesia tetang Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup (UUPLH), maupun prosedur class action sebagaimana diperkenalkan di dalam Undang-undang Republik Indonesia tentang Perlindungan Konsumen (UUPK) dan telah lama dikenal di Negara-negara common law.

Dengan adanya kemiripan antara gugatan perwakilan sebagaimana dimaksud di dalam UUPLH, serta class action sebagaimana dimaksud di dalam UUPK, ada kemungkinan pembentuk UUPLH dan UUPK ingin mengimplementasikan prinsip-prinsip class action dalam sistem peradilan di Indonesia.

Dari pengertian tentang class action dapat diketahui adanya dua unsur pokok dalam pengajuan gugatan secara class action. Dua unsur pokok tersebut adalah :
1. perwakilan kelompok; dan
2. keanggotaan kelompok.
Wakil kelompok dan anggota kelompok ini merupakan pihak-pihak dalam class action.

Arranged society rights and under the aegis of law have to be guaranteed its accomplishment. Law have to can finish the problem of arising out through law system too. Term class action represent aliance from word of class and of action. Congeniality of class is a group of one who have equality of nature, caracteristic, and importance, while congeniality of action in the world of law is raised by demand justice.

Procedure of civil law in Indonesia do not know suing procedure delegationly as referred to in Code Republic of Indonesia abour Management of Environment (UUPLH) and also prosedure of class action as introduced in Code Republic of Indonesia about is Consumerism (UUPK) and have old recognized in Nations of common law.

With existenceof looking like between delegation suing as refered to in UUPLH, and also class action as in intention in UUPK, there is possibility of maker of UUPLH and of UUPK wish principal implementation of class action in system of judicature in Indonesia.

From congeniality about class action can know the existence of two fundamental element in proffering of suing by class action. Two the fundamental element is :
1. representative class; and
2. members of class.
Group proxy and this group member represent the parties in class action.

Kamis, 19 Februari 2009

KEDUDUKAN PENGETAHUAN TRADISIONAL TERHADAP PATEN (existence traditional knowledge to patent)

Pengetahuan tradisional adalah karya masyarakat tradisional yang bisa berupa adat budaya, karya seni, dan teknologi yang telah turun-temurun digunakan sejak nenek moyang. Sistem paten Barat meninggalkan sebuah model khusus pada suatu waktu yang khusus di dalam sejarah dan keasliannya hilang di dalam waktu.

Model-model baru mungkin akan dibutuhkan untuk melindungi pengetahuan tradisional dan ini tidak mudah untuk menciptakannya. Untuk beberapa hal, merupakan tamparan politik dari inisiatif kebenaran, selain melihatnya sebagai penghargaan yang adil.

Pengenalan model-model itu akan membantu mengalirkan naiknya air pasang terhadap TRIPs dengan menunjukan kesamaan negara-negara berkembang termiskin bahwa hak kekayaan intelektual bisa menjadi sebuah kesempatan, tidak hanya sebuah ancaman.

Akan tetapi seni yang telah dahulu ini pada pengetahuan tradisional tidak dapat diidentifikasikan pada saat pemeriksaan pendaftaran paten oleh pemeriksa paten.

Traditional knowledge is traditional society masterpiece which can in the form of cultural custom, swan song, and technology which have by generations used since ancestors. Western patent system grew out of a particular model of innovation at a particular time in history and its origins are lost in the mists of time.

New models will probably be needed to protect such traditional knowledge, and these will not be easy to create. To Same, such initiatives smack of political correctness, others see them as fair reward.

Their introduction would help to return the rising tide against TRIPs by showing even the poorest developing countries that intellectual property rights can be opportunity, not just a threat.

However this prior art consisted of traditional knowledge which could not be identified by the patent examiners during the examination of the patent application.

Rabu, 18 Februari 2009

REPARASI TERHADAP KORBAN PELANGGARAN HAM (reparation to victim collicion of human rights)

Hak Asasi Manusia melahirkan tuntutan-tuntutan warga negara selaku penyandang hak kepada negara. Kewajiban yang utama negara terhadap hak asasi manusia, yaitu :
1. untuk tidak melanggar;
2. untuk menjamin penghormatan terhadap hak asasi manusia.

Reparasi terhadap korban pelanggaran hak asasi manusia yang mempertanyakan upaya hukum nasional dan upaya hukum internasional merupakan isu hukum. Setiap pelanggaran hak asasi manusia merupakan bentuk kewajiban hak asasi manusia yang kedua.

Hak asasi manusia adalah hak hukum maka harus ada upaya hukum, sehingga korban dapat menempuh upaya hukum berdasarkan pertimbangan yang berdasarkan bentuk atau jenis pelanggarannya. Adapun berdasarkan hukum internasional, negara yang melakukan pelanggaran hak asasi manusia bertanggung gugat secara internasional. Penerapan sanksi internasional supaya negara pelanggar hak asasi manusia melakukan reparasi terhadap korban dapat menjadi alternatif.

Apakah hukum nasional di beberapa negara telah mengatur jelas tentang bagaimana upaya hukum dalam rangka reparasi terhadap korban pelanggaran hak asasi manusia? Sebagai contoh di Indonesia hanya mengenal istilah kompensasi, restitusi, dan rehabilitasi yang tidak lain merupakan bentuk khusus dari reparasi.

Human rights bear citizen demands as owner of rights to state. Most important obligation of state to human rights, that is :
1. the duty to abstain from infringing upon human rights;
2. the duty to guarantee respect of these rights.

Reparation to victim collision of human rights questioning national law effort and international law effort represent law issue. Each collision of human right represent from obligation of second human rights.

Human rights is rights law hence there must be legal effort, so that victim can go through legal effort pursuant to consideration which pursuant to its collision type or form. As for pursuant to international law, state conducting collision of human rights account to sue internationally. Applying of international sanction so that state trespasser of human rights reparation to victim can become alternative.

What national law in some state have arranged clear about how legal effort in order to reparation to victim collision of human rights? ForExample in Indonesia only recognizing compensation term, restitution, and rehabilitate which is not other represent special form of reparation.


POSISI PENTING HUKUM KONTRAK INTERNASIONAL (important position of international contract law)

Kontrak internasional saat ini merupakan aktivitas terpenting yang dilakukan oleh para pengusaha atau pedagang di dunia. Mereka membeli produk di suatu negara dan menjualnya di negara ketiga atau di negaranya. Bentuk dan isi kontrak pun cukup luas sehingga perkembangannya semakin cepat.

Saat ini kontrak telah pula berkembang dan memuat transaksi di bidang jasa, seperti kontrak konstruksi, kontrak di bidang transportasi dan telekomunikasi, kontrak jasa perbankan dan asuransi, jasa pariwisata, jasa entertainment, dan lain-lain. Berkembangnya ruang lingkup kontrak tersebut, khususnya transaksi perdagangan atau bisnis yang modern, sehingga kebutuhan hukum mengenai kontrak semakin nyata, namun aturan-aturan hukum yang dirumuskan secara formal belum cukup berkembang. Hukum yang mengatur bidang ini mengalami kesulitan karena kelemahan hukum itu sendiri.

Perkembangan teknik-teknik perdagangan yang cepat kadang kala sulit dibarengi dengan perkembangan hukum yang mengakomodirnya. Beberapa kepentingan negara lain meliputi masalah hukum pajak, kepabeanan, perlindungan lingkungan, kesehatan, keselamatan manusia, masalah standarisasi, labelisasi atau sertifikasi, hingga masalah yang terkait sengketa dan peradilan. Masing-masing negara harus memikirkan hal tersebut, yaitu bagaimana aturan hukum yang terkait dengan aktivitas kontrak internasional dapat terpenuhi.

International contract in this time represent all important activity which conducted by all merchant or entrepreneur in world. They buy product in a state and selling it in third state or in its state. Form and content even also enough wide so that its growth faster.

In this time contract had also expanded and load transaction in service sector, like construction contract, contract in transportation sector and telecomunications, banking service contract and insurance, tourism service, service of entertinment, and others. Expanding of it contract scope, speciality commerce transaction or modern business, so that requirement of law conceming contract progressively reality, but formulated law other not yet enough expanded. Law arranging this area find difficulties because weakness of itself law.

Growth of commerce techniques which quickly difficult once in a while followed with growth of law accomodating it. Some importance of other state cover the problem of lease law, tollbooth, protection of environment, health, safety of human being, problem of standarisation, labelisation or sertification, till the problem of related of dispute and jurisdiction. Each state have to think of mentioned, that is now how law order which telated to international contract activity earn fufilled.

Selasa, 17 Februari 2009

PERKEMBANGAN HAK ASASI MANUSIA DI INDONESIA (growth of human rights in Indonesia)

Pelanggaran tidak saja dilakukan oleh penguasa terhadap rakyat, melainkan juga terjadi dalam hubungan antara sesama anggota masyarakat. Dalam suasana reformasi di Indonesia, tidak jarang wacana hak asasi manusia memicu debat publik yang tidak berkesudahan. Selain memberikan pencerahan, debat ini juga menimbulkan kebingungan. Karena penyalahgunaan isu hak asasi manusia hanya dapat diuraikan jika pemahaman yang memadai tentang gagasan awal, konsep dan norma-norma hak asasi manusia telah dimiliki.

Collision is not even conducted by power to people, but also happened in link between society member humanity. In reform situation in Indonesia, not ralely human right discourse trigger public debate which do not have outcome. Besides giving clarification, this debate also generate muzziness. Because abuse of human right issue can only be elaborated if understanding of adequate about idea early, human right norms and concept have been owned.

Senin, 16 Februari 2009

MEMBANGUN KESATUAN HUKUM NASIONAL (build unity of national law)

Sebagai Negara berkembang, Indonesia mempunyai keinginan yang kuat untuk melaksanakan pembangunan di segala bidang, termasuk pembangunan bidang hukum, guna menunjang dan mengatur pembangunan bidang ekonomi. Pembangunan perekonomian Indonesia tidak selalu diikuti oleh perencanaan dan pembentukan hukum yang menunjang dan mengatur perekonomian tersebut.

Sampai dengan saat ini, aspek-aspek kehidupan bermasyarakat, berbangsa dan bernegara, terutama pembangunan hukum nasional sangat terabaikan. Kebutuhan tentang peraturan perundang-undangan yang harmonis dan terintegrasi menjadi sangat diperlukan untuk mewujudkan ketertiban, menjamin kepastian dan perlindungan hukum.

As Developing countries, Indonesia have strong desire to execute development in all sector, including development in law sector, utilize to support and arrange development in economic sector. Development of economic of Indonesia don't always followed by planning and forming of law which supporting and arranging the economic.

Up to in this time, societal life aspects, nation and state, especially development of national law very uncared. requirement about regulation which harmonious law and integrated to become very needed to realize orderliness, guarantying rule of law and protection of law.

Minggu, 15 Februari 2009

ILMU HUKUM (law science)

Ilmu hukum mencakup dan membicarakan segala hal yang berhubungan dengan hukum. Demikian luasnya masalah yang dicakup oleh ilmu hukum ini, sehingga sempat memancing pendapat orang untuk mengatakan bahwa "batas-batasnya tidak dapat ditentukan".

Law science include and discuss every thing related to law. That way broadness of problem of included by law science, so that have time to fish opinion of people to say that "its boundarys cannot be determined".